Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Following the signing of the UNFCCC Treaty, the parties to the UNFCCC met at conferences (“Conferences of the Parties” -COPs) to discuss ways to achieve the treaty`s objectives. At the first Conference of the Parties (COP-1), the parties decided that the objective of the Schedule I parties to stabilize their emissions at their 1990 level by the year 2000 was “not appropriate” and further discussions took place at subsequent conferences on the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol was concluded and legally binding commitments were made under international law to enable developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions over the 2008-2012 period.  At the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, an agreement was presented to limit global warming to less than 2oC above pre-industrial levels.  The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. A dichotomous interpretation of the CBDR-RC led to an international agreement on the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. Industrialised countries (Annex I) committed to absolute emission reduction or limit targets, while all other countries (excluding Appendix I) did not have such commitments.
However, this rigid distinction does not reflect the dynamic diversification between developing countries since 1992, as evidenced by the diversity of contributions to global emissions and economic growth models (Deleuil, 2012). Dubash, 2009). This led Depledge and Yamin (2009, 443) to refer to UnFCCC Schedule I/non-Annex I as the dichotomy and “greatest weakness of the regime.” In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007),  the Copenhagen Agreement (2009),  on the Cancun Agreements (2010),  and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012).  Countries are also working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   At COP 15 in Copenhagen in 2009, it was hoped that a new legally binding agreement would be reached in the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol. Although the meeting did not live up to these expectations, the Copenhagen agreement notably recognized the need to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius. To ensure effective and safe participation, a comprehensive agreement on climate change must be considered fair by the countries concerned.
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