Bonds and shares are the two securities, but the main difference between the two is that shareholders (in capital) have a stake in the capital of a company (i.e. they are owners), while bondholders have a stake of creditors in the company (i.e. they are lenders). As creditors, bondholders take precedence over shareholders. This means that they will be repaid to shareholders, but in the event of bankruptcy, they will rank below the secured creditors.  Another difference is that bonds usually have a defined term or duration after which the bond is repaid, whereas shares are usually in the state indefinitely. An exception is an insoluble bond, like a consolation that is an eternity, that is, a bond without duration. Bonds are not necessarily issued at face value (100% of face value, corresponding to a price of 100), but bond prices will move towards face value when they approach maturity (if the market expects maturity payment to be made in full and on time), since this is the price that the issuer will pay to repay the loan. This is called the “Pull to Par”. At the time of issuance of the loan, the coupon paid and other conditions of the loan are influenced by a large number of factors, such as. B the current market interest rates, the length of the duration and the solvency of the issuer. These factors will likely change over time, so the market price of a bond after issuance will vary.
Bond markets can also be different from equity markets in that, in some markets, investors sometimes do not paid brokerage commissions to the traders with whom they buy or sell bonds. Certificates of deposit (CDs) or short-term commercial paper are considered money market instruments and not bonds: the main difference is the life of the instrument. There is no guarantee on the money left to repay the bondholders. For example, following a balance sheet scandal and a Chapter 11 bankruptcy of the huge telecommunications company Worldcom, its bondholders were paid 35.7 cents on the dollar in 2004.  In the event of bankruptcy involving a reorganization or recapitalization as opposed to liquidation, the value of bondholders may be reduced at the end, often by an exchange for a small number of newly issued bonds. . . .
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